# Andrew Ng Coursera Machine Learning(II)

Posted by Kaiyuan Chen on August 28, 2017

# Notes From Beginning(II)

## Classification

Classification is different from Regression such that it is not actually a linear function. It depends on small number of labeled discrete values.

### Hypothesis Representation

To represent 0<h_\sigma(x) < 1, we can pass the equation \theta^T x into a logistic function g, such that h_theta(x) = g(\theta^Tx), where z = \theta^Tx, g(z) = \frac{1}{1+e^{-z}} Then this Sigmoid Function can map any real number to [0,1]

##### Relation to probability

This h_\theta(x) gives the probability:

h_\theta(x) = 0.7 gives that it has 0.7’s probability to output 1. h_\theta(x) represents the probability that outputs 1

### Decision Boundary

For discrete binary classification that output 0 and 1, h_theta > 0.5 -> y=1 h_theta < 0.5 -> y=0 Luckily, we have z = 0, to have g(z) = 0.5 and the rest is fixed for h_\theta(x).

### Cost Function

We cannot use the cost function in linear regression, then it is not a convex function, then J has many local maximum/minimums.

cost = -log(h_\theta(x)) if y = 1 (1) and = -log(1-h_\theta(x)) if y = 0 (2) then it can be convex and have a global max/min

#### Intuition

Cost = 0: if y = 1 and h_\theta(x) = 1 while h_\theta(x) \rightarrow 0, then cost \rightarrow \inf a large penalty cost

#### A simplified Cost Function

Cost (h_theta(x), y) = -y (1) - (1-y) (2) and we can do gradient descent based on that

#### Multiclass Classification

We can divide y = {0 … n} problem into n+1 binary classification problems

#### Reducing Overfitting Problem

we can reduce the weight by adding some terms in J such that J = J + 1000 * \theta_3 + 1000 * \theta_4

### Regularization

The specific equations can be found on the webpage. Because I cannot write equations here, using latex format is not quite reader friendly.

#### Linear Regression

It has two parts, unregularized \theta_0 and the rest and regularized the rest. We penalize each theta by a factor \lamda \ \m.
The related normal equation can also do the same. It is a small number.