# Andrew Ng Coursera Machine Learning(III)

Posted by Kaiyuan Chen on August 30, 2017

# Notes From Beginning(III)

## Neural Network

### Representation

• Neuron: computational unit
• Dendrites: input
• axon: output
• layers: hidden layer, input layer(layer 1), output layer
• weights: \theta(parameters in \theta^Tx)
• activation function: logistic function that we used before
• bias unit a_0

As a result, the model looks like an input vector is passed into a neuron, then output a hypothesis function.

[layer 1] -> [layer2] -> [layer 3]

#### Notations

a_i^j activation of unit i in layer j \Theta^j matrix of weights controlling function mapping from layer j to layer j+1

Then a_1^2 = g(\Theta^1_10 x0 + \Theta^1_11 x1 +\Theta^1_12 x2 +\Theta^1_13 x3 )

the dimension of \Theta is s_{j+1} * (s_j + 1)

#### Vector Representation

z^j = \Theta ^{j-1} a{j-1}

#### Intuition

[] -30 [] +20 -> [] g(-30 + 20 x_1 + 20 x_2) [] +20

grouping these neurons together and form more complex logic gates

##### Multiclass classification

having a vector(rather than a number) as output and output for object A should be [0, 0, 0, 1] rather than [1, 2, 3, 4]

### Learning

#### Cost Function

{training set (x^m, y^m)} L: total number of layers s_l: number of units in layer l

Binary classification: one output 0 or 1 Multi class classification: K classes where y \in \R^K

The cost function will be a generalized version of logistic regression by adding K component together

#### Back Propagation Algorithm

\delta_j^l error of node j in layer l \Delta_{ij}^l compute partial derivative of equation [1]

goal: minimize the cost function J

in a four-layered neural network Forward propagation: a^1 = x z^2 = \Theta^1 a^1 a^2 = g(z^2) z^3 = \Theta^2 a^2 …

Then back propagate: l = 4 \delta^4 = a^4_j - y_j \delta^3 = (\Theta^3)^T\delta^4 .* g’(z^3)

dJ/d\Theta_{ij}^l = a_j^l \delta_i^{l+1} [1]

##### in Practice
###### Unrolling parameters

vector = [Theta1, Theta2, Theta3] call reshape(vector(#range), size, size)